Updated on 2024/05/23

写真b

 
KAVANAGH, Christopher
 
*Items subject to periodic update by Rikkyo University (The rest are reprinted from information registered on researchmap.)
Affiliation*
College of Contemporary Psychology Department of Psychology
Graduate School of Contemporary Psychology Master's Program in Psychology
Title*
Specially Appointed Associate Professor
Degree
Bachelor of Arts (BA) ( School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London ) / Master of Arts (MA) ( School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London ) / Bachelor of Arts (BA) ( School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London ) / Doctorate of Philosophy (DPhil) ( University of Oxford ) / Master of Arts (MA) ( School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London ) / Master of Science (MSc) ( University of Oxford )
Contact information
Mail Address
Research Interests
  • Open Science

  • Emotions

  • Group Psychology

  • Ritual Psychology

  • Social Psychology

  • Campus Career*
    • 9 2023 - Present 
      College of Contemporary Psychology   Department of Psychology   Specially Appointed Associate Professor
    • 9 2018 - Present 
      Graduate School of Contemporary Psychology   Master's Program in Psychology   Specially Appointed Associate Professor
     

    Research Areas

    • Humanities & Social Sciences / Experimental psychology

    • Humanities & Social Sciences / Social psychology

    Research History

    • 9 2018 - Present 
      RIKKYO UNIVERSITY   Graduate School of Contemporary Psychology Field of Study: Psychology   Specially Appointed Associate Professor

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    • 9 2018 - Present 
      RIKKYO UNIVERSITY   College of Contemporary Psychology Department of Psychology   Specially Appointed Associate Professor

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    Papers

    • Outgroup threat and the emergence of cohesive groups: A cross-cultural examination

      Martin Lang, Dimitris Xygalatas, Christopher M. Kavanagh, Natalia Boccardi, Jamin Halberstadt, Chris Jackson, Mercedes Martinez, Paul Reddish, Eddie M. W. Tong, Alexandra Vazquez, Harvey Whitehouse, Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Masaki Yuki, Angel Gomez

      GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS25 ( 7 ) 1739 - 1759   10 2022

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD  

      Evolutionary models and empirical evidence suggest that outgroup threat is one of the strongest factors inducing group cohesion; however, little is known about the process of forming such cohesive groups. We investigated how outgroup threat galvanizes individuals to affiliate with others to form engaged units that are willing to act on behalf of their in-group. A total of 864 participants from six countries were randomly assigned to an outgroup threat, environmental threat, or no-threat condition. We measured the process of group formation through physical proximity and movement mirroring along with activity toward threat resolution, and found that outgroup threat induced activity and heightened mirroring in males. We also observed higher mirroring and proximity in participants who perceived the outgroup threat as a real danger, albeit the latter results were imprecisely estimated. Together, these findings help understand how sharing subtle behavioral cues influences collaborative aggregation of people under threat.

      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211016961

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    • The socio-psychological predictors of support for post-truth collective action

      Ali Mashuri, Idhamsyah Eka Putra, Christopher Kavanagh, Esti Zaduqisti, Fitri Sukmawati, Halimatus Sakdiah, Selviana Selviana

      JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY162 ( 4 ) 504 - 522   7 2022

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

      Politics in the current era are replete with unreliable media stories which lack evidence, sometimes disparagingly dubbed "fake news". A survey on a sample of Muslims in Indonesia (N = 518) in this work found that participants' endorsement of collective action in of support issues with little to no empirical evidence (i.e., post-truth collective action) increased as a function of their belief in fake news and prejudice against the outgroup (i.e., non-Muslims). Belief in fake news stemmed from participants' generic and specific conspiratorial thinking, whereas prejudice was positively predicted by relative Muslim prototypicality, denoting how much Muslims in Indonesia view that their group is more representative than non-Muslims of the superordinate Indonesian identity that encompasses both groups. Additionally, our findings revealed that generic conspiratorial thinking and relative Muslim prototypicality were positively predicted by collective narcissism, which in turn spurred participants' support for collective action by augmenting belief in fake news.

      DOI: 10.1080/00224545.2021.1935678

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    • Reflections on the scientific study of religion after the first decade of Religion, Brain & Behavior

      David Rohr, Wesley J. Wildman, Richard Sosis, Joseph Bulbulia, Uffe Schjoedt, Joel Daniels, Christopher Kavanagh

      RELIGION BRAIN & BEHAVIOR10 ( 4 ) 359 - 364   10 2020

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      Language:English   Publisher:ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

      DOI: 10.1080/2153599X.2020.1831799

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    • Ritual morphospace revisited: the form, function and factor structure of ritual practice

      Rohan Kapitany, Christopher Kavanagh, Harvey Whitehouse

      PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES375 ( 1805 )   8 2020

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ROYAL SOC  

      Human rituals exhibit bewildering diversity, from the Mauritian Kavadi to Catholic communion. Is this diversity infinitely plastic or are there some general dimensions along which ritual features vary? We analyse two cross-cultural datasets: one drawn from the anthropological record and another novel contemporary dataset, to examine whether a consistent underlying set of latent dimensions in ritual structure and experiences can be detected. First, we conduct a factor analysis on 651 rituals from 74 cultural groups, in which 102 binary variables are coded. We find a reliable set of dimensions emerged, which provide potential candidates for foundational elements of ritual form. Notably, we find that the expression of features associated with dysphoric and euphoric experiences in rituals appears to be largely orthogonal. Second, we follow-up with a pre-registered factor analysis examining contemporary ritual experiences of 779 individuals from Japan, India and the US. We find supporting evidence that ritual experiences are clustered in relatively orthogonal euphoric, dysphoric, frequency and cognitive dimensions. Our findings suggest that there are important regularities in the diversity of ritual expression and experience observed across both time and culture. We discuss the implications of these findings for cognitive theories of ritual and cultural evolution. This article is part of the theme issue 'Ritual renaissance: new insights into the most human of behaviours'.

      DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2019.0436

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    • Replicating and extending the effects of auditory religious cues on dishonest behavior

      Aaron D. Nichols, Martin Lang, Christopher Kavanagh, Radek Kundt, Junko Yamada, Dan Ariely, Panagiotis Mitkidis

      PLOS ONE15 ( 8 )   8 2020

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE  

      Although scientists agree that replications are critical to the debate on the validity of religious priming research, religious priming replications are scarce. This paper attempts to replicate and extend previously observed effects of religious priming on ethical behavior. We test the effect of religious instrumental music on individuals' ethical behavior with university participants (N = 408) in the Czech Republic, Japan, and the US. Participants were randomly assigned to listen to one of three musical tracks (religious, secular, or white noise) or to no music (control) for the duration of a decision-making game. Participants were asked to indicate which side of a vertically-bisected computer screen contained more dots and, in every trial, indicating that the right side of the screen had more dots earned participants the most money (irrespective of the number of dots). Therefore, participants were able to report dishonestly to earn more money. In agreement with previous research, we did not observe any main effects of condition. However, we were unable to replicate a moderating effect of self-reported religiosity on the effects of religious music on ethical behavior. Nevertheless, further analyses revealed moderating effects for ritual participation and declared religious affiliation congruent with the musical prime. That is, participants affiliated with a religious organization and taking part in rituals cheated significantly less than their peers when listening to religious music. We also observed significant differences in cheating behavior across samples. On average, US participants cheated the most and Czech participants cheated the least. We conclude that normative conduct is, in part, learned through active membership in religious communities and our findings provide further support for religious music as a subtle, moral cue.

      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237007

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    • Exploring the Pathways Between Transformative Group Experiences and Identity Fusion

      Christopher M. Kavanagh, Rohan Kapitany, Idhamsyah Eka Putra, Harvey Whitehouse

      FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY11   6 2020

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:FRONTIERS MEDIA SA  

      A growing body of evidence suggests that two distinct forms of group alignment are possible: identification and fusion (the former asserts that group and personal identity are distinct, while the latter asserts group and personal identities are functionally equivalent and mutually reinforcing). Among highly fused individuals, group identity taps directly into personal agency and so any attack on the group is perceived as a personal attack and motivates a willingness to fight and possibly even die as a defensive response. As such, identity fusion is relevant in explaining violent extremism, including suicidal terrorist attacks. Identity fusion is theorized to arise as a result from experiences which are (1) perceived as shared and (2) transformative, however evidence for this relationship remains limited. Here, we present a pre-registered study in which we examine the role of transformativeness and perceived sharedness of group-defining events in generating identity fusion. We find that both of these factors are predictive of identity fusion but that the relationship with transformativeness was more consistent than perceived sharedness across analyses in a sample of Indonesian Muslims.

      DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01172

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    • Ritual, identity fusion, and the inauguration of president Trump: a pseudo-experiment of ritual modes theory

      Rohan Kapitany, Christopher Kavanagh, Michael D. Buhrmester, Martha Newson, Harvey Whitehouse

      SELF AND IDENTITY19 ( 3 ) 293 - 323   4 2020

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

      The US Presidential Inauguration is a symbolic event which arouses significant emotional responses among diverse groups, and is of considerable significance to Americans' personal and social identities. We argue that the inauguration qualifies as an Imagistic Ritual. Such ritual experiences are thought to produce identity fusion: a visceral sense of oneness with the group. The 2017 Inauguration of President Trump was a unique opportunity to examine how a large-scale naturalistic imagistic ritual influences the social identities of Americans who supported and opposed President Trump. We conducted a pre-registered 7-week longitudinal investigation among a sample of Americans to examine how President Trump's Inauguration influenced identity fusion. We predicted that the affective responses to the inauguration would predict positive changes in fusion, mediated by self-reflection. We did not find support for this. However, the inauguration was associated with flashbulb-like memories, and positive emotions at the time of the event predicted changes in fusion to both ingroup and outgroup targets. Finally, both positive and negative emotional responses inspired self-reflection, but did not mediate the relationship with fusion. We discuss the implications for models linking group psychology, fusion theory, and ritual modes. All material is freely available at the Open Science Framework: .

      DOI: 10.1080/15298868.2019.1578686

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    • Death anxiety, exposure to death, mortuary preferences, and religiosity in five countries (vol 6, 154, 2019)

      Jonathan Jong, Jamin Halberstadt, Matthias Bluemke, Christopher Kavanagh, Christopher Jackson

      SCIENTIFIC DATA7 ( 1 )   1 2020

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      Language:English   Publisher:NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP  

      DOI: 10.1038/s41597-020-0357-2

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    • Is Japan Religious?

      Christopher M. Kavanagh, Jonathan Jong

      JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF RELIGION NATURE AND CULTURE14 ( 1 ) 152 - 180   2020

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:EQUINOX PUBLISHING LTD  

      The popular image of Japan and religion presents something of a paradox. On the one hand, large cross-cultural surveys frequently present Japan as a country of non-believers, where only 10-15% of the population self-identify as religious and the vast majority rank religion as being of little importance to their lives. Yet, any visitor to Japan is likely to be struck by the sheer number of Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples that dot the landscape, and the diverse array of festivals (rnatsun) that are performed at these sites. In this article, we argue that the apparent paradox is actually an illusion generated by the unwarranted ethnocentric assumption that religion everywhere must resemble the features of the Abrahamic faiths that are predominant in Western societies. To make our case we first review recurrent theoretical and definitional debates concerning religion and examine how they relate to the Japanese context Second, we explore patterns in contemporary data from an online survey of N = 1,000 Japanese that asked about religious beliefs and practices. We illustrate through the results obtained that to understand religion in Japan it is necessary to move beyond theocentric approaches and expectations that religious belief must be tied to religious identities or exclusive membership in a given tradition. To conclude, we argue that the patterns observed in Japan demonstrate that scholars who wish to explore religion cross-culturally need to take greater account of orthopraxic cultural contexts and distinguish between 'theocentric' doctrinal beliefs and broader supernatural beliefs.

      DOI: 10.1558/jsrnc.39187

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    • Special Issue Introduction: Religious Diversity and the Cognitive Science of Religion: New Experimental and Fieldwork Approaches

      John H. Shaver, Christopher M. Kavanagh

      JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF RELIGION NATURE AND CULTURE14 ( 1 ) 5 - 11   2020

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      Language:English   Publisher:EQUINOX PUBLISHING LTD  

      DOI: 10.1558/jsrnc.40580

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    • The role of religious fundamentalism and tightness-looseness in promoting collective narcissism and extreme group behavior. Peer-reviewed

      Yustisia, W, Putra, I.E, Kavanagh, C, Whitehouse, H, Rufaidah, A

      Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.12 ( 2 ) 231 - 240   2019

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION-AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC  

      The present study aims to understand the roles of religious fundamentalism and collective narcissism in predicting extreme behavior. It was hypothesized that religious fundamentalism may enhance collective narcissism and that this would in turn increase the tendency to endorse extreme behavior. It was also anticipated that perceptions of social tightness would moderate the indirect effect of religious fundamentalism on extreme behavior through collective narcissism. To test the hypotheses, we collected data from 787 members of Islamic religious groups in Indonesia (male = 457, female = 325); ages ranged from 17 to 52 (M = 25.14, SD = 8.49). Supporting the hypotheses, our findings demonstrated the validity of the expected pathways, confirming that it is important to consider the role of collective narcissism and tightness-looseness when studying relationships between religious fundamentalism and extreme behavior. Our findings demonstrate that when religious fundamentalists are able to see their cultural values in a loose way or more dynamics, they may become less narcissistic collective and less support for extreme behaviors.

      DOI: 10.1037/rel0000269

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    • Too Much, Too Little, or the Wrong Kind of 'Theory' in the Study of Religions?

      Christopher M. Kavanagh

      METHOD & THEORY IN THE STUDY OF RELIGION30 ( 4-5 ) 463 - 471   10 2018

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:BRILL ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS  

      In response to the recent publication of Theory In a Time of Excess this article offers an outsider perspective on the theoretical issues raised and why they are ultimately unlikely to be resolved. The article argues that there is a widespread problematic tendency to equate theory with a specific category of critical theory that tautologically restricts the theoretical boundaries of the study of religion field and neglects the contributions of more empirically inclined theorists. In a similar manner, essentialising narratives about the Cognitive Science of Religion that portray the field as unified and monolithic are highlighted and the validity of such critiques is questioned.

      DOI: 10.1163/15700682-12341439

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    • Relational mobility predicts social behaviors in 39 countries and is tied to historical farming and threat Peer-reviewed

      Robert Thomson, Masaki Yuki, Thomas Talhelm, Joanna Schug, Mie Kito, Arin H Ayanian, Julia C Becker, Maja Becker, Chi-yue Chiu, Hoon-Seok Choi, Carolina M Ferreira, Marta Fülöp, Pelin Gul, Ana Maria Houghton-Illera, Mihkel Joasoo, Jonathan Jong, Christopher Kavanagh, Dmytro Khutkyy, Claudia Manzi, Urszula M Marcinkowska, Taciano L Milfont, Félix Neto, Timo Von Oertzen, Ruthie Pliskin, Alvaro San Martin, Purnima Singh, Mariko L Visserman

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115 ( 29 ) 7521 - 7526   17 7 2018

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:NATL ACAD SCIENCES  

      Biologists and social scientists have long tried to understand why some societies have more fluid and open interpersonal relationships and how those differences influence culture. This study measures relational mobility, a socioecological variable quantifying voluntary (high relational mobility) vs. fixed (low relational mobility) interpersonal relationships. We measure relational mobility in 39 societies and test whether it predicts social behavior. People in societies with higher relational mobility report more proactive interpersonal behaviors (e.g., self-disclosure and social support) and psychological tendencies that help them build and retain relationships (e.g., general trust, intimacy, self-esteem). Finally, we explore ecological factors that could explain relational mobility differences across societies. Relational mobility was lower in societies that practiced settled, interdependent subsistence styles, such as rice farming, and in societies that had stronger ecological and historical threats.

      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713191115

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    • Positive experiences of high arousal martial arts rituals are linked to identity fusion and costly pro‐group actions Peer-reviewed

      Christopher Kavanagh, Jonathan Jong, Ryan McKay, Harvey Whitehouse

      European Journal of Social Psychology49 ( 3 ) 461 - 481   29 5 2018

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WILEY  

      A cross-sectional study was conducted with 605 practitioners of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) to test the hypothesis that high arousal rituals promote social cohesion, primarily through identity fusion. BJJ promotion rituals are rare, highly emotional ritual events that often feature gruelling belt-whipping gauntlets. We used the variation in such experiences to examine whether more gruelling rituals were associated with identity fusion and pro-group behaviour. We found no differences between those who had undergone belt-whipping and those who had not and no evidence of a correlation between pain and social cohesion. However, across the full sample we found that positive, but not negative, affective experiences of promotional rituals were associated with identity fusion and that this mediated pro-group action. These findings provide new evidence concerning the social functions of collective rituals and highlight the importance of addressing the potentially diverging subjective experiences of painful rituals.

      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2514

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    • A ritual by any other name

      Rohan Kapitany, Christopher Kavanagh

      BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES41   2018

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      Language:English   Publisher:CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS  

      We question the privileged role of trance within the framework presented. The features that Singh suggests make it unique are not well demarcated from those of rituals more generally, and we challenge the depth of explanation presented for the mechanisms of trance. We outline the form of a solution, which may facilitate increased operational utility for the presented framework.

      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X17002102

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    • Death and religion in a post-replication crisis world

      Kavanagh, C.

      Religion, Brain and Behavior   2018

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      Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

      DOI: 10.1080/2153599X.2017.1414708

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    • Culture and Group Processes Invited Peer-reviewed

      Christopher Kavanagh, Masaki Yuki

      Online Readings in Psychology and Culture5 ( 4 )   6 2017

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

      DOI: 10.9707/2307-0919.1154

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    • The evolution of extreme cooperation via shared dysphoric experiences Peer-reviewed

      Harvey Whitehouse, Jonathan Jong, Michael D Buhrmester, Ángel Gómez, Brock Bastian, Christopher M Kavanagh, Martha Newson, Miriam Matthews, Jonathan A Lanman, Ryan McKay, Sergey Gavrilets

      Scientific Reports7 ( 44292 )   14 3 2017

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP  

      Willingness to lay down one's life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins). Our empirical results show that sharing painful experiences produces "identity fusion" -a visceral sense of oneness which in turn can motivate self-sacrifice, including willingness to fight and die for the group. Practically, our account of how shared dysphoric experiences produce identity fusion helps us better understand such pressing social issues as suicide terrorism, holy wars, sectarian violence, gang-related violence, and other forms of intergroup conflict.

      DOI: 10.1038/srep44292

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    • The event cognition “hammer” and the “nails” of experience

      Kavanagh, C.

      Religion, Brain and Behavior7 ( 1 ) 68 - 70   2017

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

      DOI: 10.1080/2153599X.2016.1150330

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    • On the necessity of “minimal” methodological standards and religious “butterfly” collecting

      Kavanagh, C.

      Religion, Brain and Behavior6 ( 3 )   2016

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      Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

      DOI: 10.1080/2153599X.2015.1015048

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    • Developing the field site concept for the study of cultural evolution: The promise and the perils

      Kavanagh, C., Nakawake, Y.

      Cliodynamics7 ( 2 )   2016

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      Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

      DOI: 10.21237/C7clio7233542

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    • Shared Negative Experiences Lead to Identity Fusion via Personal Reflection Peer-reviewed

      Jonathan Jong, Harvey Whitehouse, Christopher Kavanagh, Justin Lane

      PLOS ONE10 ( 12 )   12 2015

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE  

      Across three studies, we examined the role of shared negative experiences in the formation of strong social bonds-identity fusion-previously associated with individuals' willingness to self-sacrifice for the sake of their groups. Studies 1 and 2 were correlational studies conducted on two different populations. In Study 1, we found that the extent to which Northern Irish Republicans and Unionists experienced shared negative experiences was associated with levels of identity fusion, and that this relationship was mediated by their reflection on these experiences. In Study 2, we replicated this finding among Bostonians, looking at their experiences of the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings. These correlational studies provide initial evidence for the plausibility of our causal model; however, an experiment was required for a more direct test. Thus, in Study 3, we experimentally manipulated the salience of the Boston Marathon Bombings, and found that this increased state levels of identity fusion among those who experienced it negatively. Taken together, these three studies provide evidence that shared negative experience leads to identity fusion, and that this process involves personal reflection.

      DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145611

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    • Born idolaters: The limits of the philosophical implications of the cognitive science of religion Peer-reviewed

      Jonathan Jong, Christopher Kavanagh, Aku Visala

      NEUE ZEITSCHRIFT FUR SYSTEMATISCHE THEOLOGIE UND RELIGIONSPHILOSOPHIE57 ( 2 ) 244 - 266   6 2015

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      Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH  

      In recent years, theoretical and empirical work done under the rubric of the cognitive science of religion (CSR) have led many to conclude that religion (or, at least, some aspects thereof) is "natural". By this, it is meant that human beings are predisposed to believe in supernatural agents, and that their beliefs about these agents are constrained in various ways. The details about how and why these predispositions and cognitive constraints developed and evolved are still largely unknown, though there is enough of a theoretical consensus in CSR for philosophers to have begun reflecting on the implications of CSR for religious belief. In particular, much philosophical work has been done on the implications of CSR for theism, on both sides of the debate. On one hand, CSR might contribute to defeating particular arguments for theism, or indeed theism altogether; on the other hand, CSR might provide support for specific theological views. In this paper, we argue that the CSR is largely irrelevant for classical theism, and in particular that the "naturalness hypothesis" is much less congenial to theism than some have previously argued.

      DOI: 10.1515/nzsth-2015-0012

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