Updated on 2024/05/23

写真b

 
UEDA Makoto
 
*Items subject to periodic update by Rikkyo University (The rest are reprinted from information registered on researchmap.)
Affiliation*
College of Arts Department of History, Course in World History
Graduate School of Arts Doctoral Program in History
Graduate School of Arts Master's Program in History
Title*
Senior Specially Appointed Professor
Degree
文学修士
Contact information
Mail Address
Research Theme*
  • 中国社会史ならびにアジア社会論を研究テーマとする。前者では主に中国の明清時代を対象に、都市下層民の生活、親族関係と地域社会との関係、森林と社会との関係などを多面的に分析してきた。後者では海域アジア史・東ユーラシア史という視座から研究を進めている。

  • Research Interests
  • アジア

  • 中国史

  • 森林

  • 環境問題

  • ユーラシア史

  • Campus Career*
    • 4 2023 - Present 
      College of Arts   Department of History, Course in World History   Senior Specially Appointed Professor
    • 4 2023 - Present 
      Graduate School of Arts   Master's Program in History   Senior Specially Appointed Professor
    • 4 2023 - Present 
      Graduate School of Arts   Doctoral Program in History   Senior Specially Appointed Professor
    • 4 2006 - 3 2023 
      College of Arts   Department of History, Course in World History   Professor
    • 4 2005 - 3 2023 
      Graduate School of Arts   Master's Program in History   Professor
    • 4 2005 - 3 2023 
      Graduate School of Arts   Doctoral Program in History   Professor
    • 4 1997 - 3 2006 
      College of Arts   Department of History   Professor
    • 4 1990 - 3 1997 
      College of Arts   Department of History   Associate Professor (as old post name)
    • 4 1989 - 3 1990 
      College of Arts   Department of History   Lecturer

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    Research Areas

    • Humanities & Social Sciences / History of Asia and Africa

    Research History

    • 4 2006 - Present 
      RIKKYO UNIVERSITY   Graduate School of Arts Field of Study: History   Professor

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    • 4 2006 - Present 
      RIKKYO UNIVERSITY   Graduate School of Arts Field of Study: History   Professor

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    • 4 2006 - Present 
      RIKKYO UNIVERSITY   College of Arts Department of History Course on World History   Professor

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    • 4 1997 - 3 2006 
      RIKKYO UNIVERSITY   College of Arts Department of History   Professor

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    • 4 1990 - 3 1997 
      RIKKYO UNIVERSITY   College of Arts Department of History   Associate Professor (as old post name)

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    • 4 1989 - 3 1990 
      RIKKYO UNIVERSITY   College of Arts Department of History   Lecturer

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    • 4 1982 - 3 1987 
      The University of Tokyo   Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia

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    Education

    • - 3 1982 
      The University of Tokyo   Graduate School, Division of Humanities

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      Country: Japan

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    • - 3 1980 
      The University of Tokyo   Faculty of Literature

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      Country: Japan

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    Papers

    • 細菌兵器と村落社会 ― 中国浙江省義烏市崇山村の事例 ―

      上田 信

      見市雅俊ほか編 疾病・開発・帝国医療 東京大学出版会   269 - 305   8 2001

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    • 感応する大地 ― 風水 ―

      上田 信

      鈴木正崇編 講座 人間と環境 昭和堂   30 - 56   10 1999

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    • アジアという差別 ― 地球と地域の対流 ―

      上田 信

      栗原彬 講座 差別の社会学 3・現代世界の差別構造 弘文堂   34 - 47   2 1997

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    • 史的システム論と物質流 ― 十八世紀中国森林史のために ―

      上田 信

      史潮 弘文堂   27 - 40   2 1996

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    • そこにある死体 ― 事件理解の方法 ―

      上田 信

      東京大学東洋文化研究所 東洋文化 ( 76 ) 65 - 93   1 1996

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      Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (other academic)   Publisher:東京大学東洋文化研究所  

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    • 伝統中国-<盆地><宗族>にみる明清時代

      講談社   249   4 1995

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    • 清朝期中国の災害と人口

      速水融・町田洋編『講座・文明と環境・第七巻,人口・疫病・災害』(朝倉書店)   236-248   4 1995

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    • 脱近代・脱欧脱亜・脱日本(1)~(3)

      上田 信

      現代思想 青土社   1 1 1995

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    • 中国における生態システムと山区経済 ― 秦嶺山脈の事例から ―

      上田 信

      宮嶋博史ほか アジアから考える(6)長期社会変動 東京大学出版会   99 - 128   10 1994

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    • 中国の社会

      平凡社   351   4 1994

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    • 緑と村―中国の内発的緑化―

      上田 信

      思想 岩波書店 ( 816 ) 109 - 129   6 1992

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    • 問俗録-福建・台湾の民俗と社会-

      平凡社   254   4 1988

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    • County Administration and Local Elite in Eastern Zhejiang Province during the Ming-Qing Period

      The Journal of Oriental researches46 ( 3 ) p533 - 558   12 1987

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    Misc.

    • 書評 岸本美緒著『礼教・契約・生存』『史学史管見』

      上田 信

      史学雑誌 / 史学会 編131 ( 9 ) 1503 - 1512   9 2022

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    • 序章 18・19世紀にいたる渡海者の変遷

      上田, 信

      なじまぁ特別号   3 - 13   30 6 2021

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:立教大学アジア地域研究所  

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    • 書評 小濱正子著 一人っ子政策と中國社會

      上田 信

      東洋史研究 / 東洋史研究会 編80 ( 1 ) 190 - 202   6 2021

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    • The Identities of Maritime People and the Building of Nation States

      上田 信

      Rikkyo Occasional Paper15   1 - 12   2019

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    • 張居正―果敢な政治家かそれとも腐敗した政治屋か

      上田 信

      上田信編著『悪の歴史 東アジア編(下)/南・東南アジア編』巻号無し   108 - 123   2018

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    • 朱元璋(洪武帝)―理想のために大粛正を行った皇帝

      上田 信

      上田信編著『悪の歴史 東アジア編(下)/南・東南アジア編』巻号無し   86 - 97   2018

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    • タカラガイの路―ベンガル湾から雲南へ―

      上田 信

      弘末雅士編『海と陸の織りなす世界史―港市と内陸社会』春風社巻号なし   49 - 68   2018

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    • 朱棣(永楽帝)―帝位簒奪者が生んだ闇

      上田 信

      上田信編著『悪の歴史 東アジア編(下)/南・東南アジア編』巻号無し   98 - 107   2018

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    • 科研「渡海者のアイデンティティと領域国家」スタート

      上田 信

      なじまぁ8   16 - 17   2017

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    • 風水都市・北京—Peking as a Fengshui City—特集 シンポジウム 近世・近代における都市と開発 : 環境史の視点から

      上田 信

      メトロポリタン史学 = The journal of historical studies / メトロポリタン史学会 編12   27 - 47   12 2016

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    • 鄭和とムハンマドー雲南碑文のナゾー Peer-reviewed

      上田 信

      ヒマラヤ学誌17   154 - 161   2016

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    • タカラガイ・雲南・帝国—2015年度歴史学研究会大会報告 環境から問う帝国/帝国主義 ; 全体会

      上田 信

      歴史学研究 = Journal of historical studies / 歴史学研究会 編 ( 937 ) 2 - 11   10 2015

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    • 書評 小林善文 著『中国の環境政策⟨南水北調⟩ — 水危機を克服できるのか』

      上田 信

      水資源・環境研究28 ( 1 ) 98 - 99   2015

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      DOI: 10.6012/jwei.28.98

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    • 一五世紀前半におけるムスリムの海と中国 : いわゆる鄭和下西洋をめぐって—Jugoseiki zenhan ni okeru Musurimu no umi to Chugoku : iwayuru Teiwaka Seiyo o megutte—The Early 15th-century Muslim Seas and China : concerning the socalled voyages of Zheng He in the Western Ocean

      上田, 信

      史学83 ( 1 ) 31(31) - 55(55)   3 2014

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:三田史学会  

      type:text
      はじめに
      故馬公墓誌銘の謎
      ムスリムとして生まれた和
      西洋に下る
      南シナ海域から見た和の遠征
      和の墓参
      おわりに
      論文

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      Other Link: http://id.ndl.go.jp/bib/025527905

    • 書評 村上勝彦・松本光太郎編『中国雲南の開発と環境』

      SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY80 ( 1 ) 108 - 110   2014

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY SOCIETY  

      DOI: 10.20624/sehs.80.1_108

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    • 近世東ユーラシア史の視点からのコメント:済州島漂着船とタカラガイ—Comment from the View of East Eurasian History in the Early Modern Era:Cowries and the Ryukyuan ship which was washed up on Cheju Island

      上田, 信

      周縁の文化交渉学シリーズ5 『船の文化からみた東アジア諸国の位相―近世期の琉球を中心とした地域間比較を通じて―』   135 - 139   31 1 2012

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:関西大学文化交渉学教育研究拠点(ICIS)  

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    • ドラマ化される史跡-海域アジアと五島列島

      上田 信

      中央評論(中央大学出版) 62-1   26 - 34   2010

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    • アムドの大地と宗教-青海省黄南チベット族自治州同仁県-

      上田 信

      なじまぁ-Accessible Asia-   10 - 12   2010

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    • 中国青海省レプゴンのチベット族の祭祀と生態環境

      上田 信

      国際シンポジウム「日本伎楽とチベット仏教チャムの比較研究-仮頭に注目して-」予稿集   42 - 57   2010

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    • 生態環境史の視点による地域史の再構築-生物多様性の歴史的変化研究のための史料について

      上田 信

      アジア遊学136 環境と歴史学:歴史研究の新地平(勉誠出版)   96 - 103   2010

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    • 中国青海省レプゴンのチベット族の祭祀と生態環境

      上田 信

      立教大学アジア地域研究所   88 - 103   2010

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    • 生態環境史の視点による地域史の再構築 : 中国東南山地丘陵地域の村落と宗族(報告,公開シンポジウム「環境と歴史学」,第一〇七回史学会大会報告)

      上田 信

      史学雑誌119 ( 1 ) 94 - 95   2010

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:公益財団法人 史学会  

      DOI: 10.24471/shigaku.119.1_94

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    • タカラガイと文明-東ユーラシア

      上田 信

      地球環境からの問い-ヒトと自然の共生とは何か(池谷和信編)(岩波書店)   137 - 152   2009

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    • 泥にまみれたカメラの香り

      上田 信

      立教大学アジア地域研究所ニューズレター No.18   1   2008

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    • ON THE RECORD 「風水」から見た中国の環境問題

      上田 信

      東亜 ( 431 ) 64 - 73   5 2003

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    • Prohibition, Planning and the Deregulation of Access to Natural Resources : The Development of the Mountainous Areas in Jiangxi in the Mid-Qing

        61 ( 4 ) 699 - 728   31 3 2003

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      Various studies in recent years have indicated that the so-called "prosperous age" 盛世 of the mid-Qing of the 18th century was brought to a close by the ecological limits of exploitation. In order to explore this issue historically, it is necessary to clarify the perceptions of the people at the time of the ecological limits of exploitation. The responses to the ecological limits of exploitation during the Qing dynasty were shaped by three factors pulling in different directions, i.e., the prohibition of access to natural resources, fengjin 封禁, the promotion of planned development, kaicai 開採, and the deregulation of the prohibition to the access to natural resources, chijin 馳禁. I have attempted to clarify the perceptual systems that upheld arguments for each response and their relations to the methods of administrative policy. The Tongtangshan 銅塘山 dealt with in this article was called a "prohibited mountain, " because access to its resources was prohibited during the Ming dynasty in order to preserve public peace. The policy of prohibiting development was carried on during the Qing. When the rule of emperor Qianlong commenced, even the officials of the central government became conscious of the rise in the cost of food, and the planned development of natural resources began to be advocated. Receiving these demands from the central government, Chen Hongmou 陳弘謀, who was known as a capable bureaucrat, submitted a plan for the development of Tongtangshan to the throne. He deciphered the complex geography of the mountainous region and proposed the cultivation of crops suited to each environment. The crux of Chen's development plan was to limit those who were to reclaim the land to local residents. His aim was to transform the mountainous land into sustainable property, heng-ye 恆業. Within Chen Hongmou's argument for deregulation, his writings on the mountainous areas are quite detailed. He pointed out that it was possible to develop the land according to the character of the terrain and to cultivate crops, and that much wealth could be created by choosing crops that could be introduced under mountainous conditions. Chen's argument had been supported by the methods of administration built up while he served as the provincial governor, xunfu 巡撫, of Jiangxi. He determined regional administrative policy after receiving reports of investigations of local conditions and maps that he had commissioned by the magistrates of the localities that were under his jurisdiction. The administrative methods developed in the administration of Jiangxi were fully deployed in Shaanxi,his next assignment. By comparing the categories in the reports issued shortly after his appointment to Jiangxi and those after taking office in Shaanxi, one sees that he had deepened his awareness of the development of mountainous regions while ruling in Jiangxi. It is clear, for example, that he had come to grasp the vegetation of mountainous regions and had become intensely aware of the necessity of its link to land rights. The policies that Chen issued in regard to planned development were not the traditional agronomism grounded Confucian thought. They were intended to solve the "food" problem by providing the people the power to buy and sell land in order to promote commercial activity. The development of mountainous lands was not simply aimed at increasing the volume of arable land; it was also intended to put the various resources of the forests to use in establishingindustry. The argument that Chen Hongmou advanced for planned development was, nevertheless, never put into practice. A summary of the dangers as they would have been construed by local officials in regard to the development of the mountainous regions would probably include the following. In developing mountainous regions, local financing would prove inadequate, and it would be necessary for commercial capital from outside the region to provide funding. In order to seek profit beyond a fixed level, commercial capital would then promote development on scale greater than the level that had been envisioned by Chen Hongmou. This sort of development could not be sustained by the local populace. Therefore, a labor force would flow into the area, and the local food sources would be unable to support them. So the arguments must have gone, and the prohibition on the access to the resources of Tongtangshan continued. As the years went by, the policy of prohibiting access to resources grew increasingly hollow. Living in an area adjacent to the prohibited region became an advantage, as people willfully violated the border in order to develop new lands and burned or cut the woods at will. The monies attained in this manner would be paid to the soldiers and offcials who were ostensibly guarding the lands. The prohibited areas were whittled away by development from the surrounding territories. With the coming of the 19th century and change in the era name to Jiaqing, the argument for deregulation came to be instituted in the form of a confirmation of the existing reality. This argument was not advanced with any conception of promoting sustainable industries. Its institution was no more than as a stopgap remedy for the current situation. Although conscious of the problem, it had been nearly impossible for the bureaucratic apparatus to relax the prohibition that had been in place for hundreds of years. The prohibition on access to Tongtangshan was finally removed in 1869 after Taipingtianguo. By this time the capacity of the environment had already been degraded by unplanned development. The reason that Chen Hongmou was able to perceive the possibility of developing the Tongtangshan area can be laid to the fact that it was grounded on his knowledge of the environmental capacity of Tongtangshan, which he had attained in his capacity of a bureaucrat and not as an individual person. Through communications with local officials in reports etc., a functional and substantive bureaucratic organization was formed with the provincial governor at its hub and district magistrates at the outer rim. Chen by taking in information generated by local officials created a bureaucratic organization able to adapt to ever changing realities. Regional officials other than Chen who advocated a policy of prohibition could only perceive the capacity of the environment before their own eyes and could not conceive of how the scene might be changed by human intervention. The cause for this may be discovered in the fact most regional officials were organized in the standard bureaucratic structure that only served to convey the will of superiors on down to inferiors. Whether capacity of the environment could be preserved or not depended on whether the potentialities of development of the land could be perceived. In the case of Tongtangshan, unplanned developed proceeded because the successor to Chen Hongmou could not perceive its potential, and the capacity of the environment was degraded. In contrast, Jiulingshan 九嶺山 in Jiangxi was, like Tongtangshan, designated a prohibited mountain due to consideration of public order during the Ming. But the fact that the target area possessed the potential for development was clear to residents of other regions because prior to the designation, areas of cultivation had already existed, the right to the profits had been established, and a tax burden created. The implementation of the policy of prohibiting access to resources awakened a realization that by venturing to abandon this potential, it might profit the local society. In the district in which Jiulingshan was located, the amount of tax based on the potentiality of development of the prohibited area was paid instead on the basis of the entire area owned by all those with a tax burden. As a result, a public consciousness regarding the prohibited land was born, and the prohibition on access was maintained. The central area of Jiulingshan is even today a designated nature reserve. Although the policy of prohibition to the access of resources was implemented in regard to the environmental potential of Tongtangshan, those recourses were gobbled up by interlopers from other regions. The reason for this was that regional officials and elites were unable to perceive the value of mountainous lands. If they had perceived the creation of economic value through planned development, the residents of the region would have shouldered the burden of development themselves and attained regular employment in the mountains. Others, precisely because they realized there was such value and yet ventured to abandon economic profit, were able to preserve values other than economic ones, such as social stability. In the study of the history of the environment, the prohibition of access to resources has often been judged as preservation of the environment. However, to determine whether it was possible to maintain the prohibition over time, one must pursue the implementation of the policy within the reality of methods of administration and tax burden in each historical period. The study of the ecological history must be investigated within the historical circumstances.

      DOI: 10.14989/155449

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    • 解説(「郷土中国」 費孝通)

      上田 信

      調査研究報告49   1 - 6   3 2001

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:学習院大学  

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    • 中島楽章「明代徽州の一宗族をめぐる紛争と同族統合」

      Legal History Review1997 ( 47 ) 305 - 308   30 3 1998

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:Japan Legal History Association  

      DOI: 10.5955/jalha.1997.305

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      Other Link: http://id.ndl.go.jp/bib/4517517

    • トラの眼から見た地域開発史-中国黄山における生態システムの変容-

      上田信

      地球の環境と開発   1998

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      Publisher:岩波書店  

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    • 和田正広編著『中国伝統社会の歴史的特質--宗教・官僚・啓蒙』

      SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY64 ( 4 ) 587 - 589   1998

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY SOCIETY  

      DOI: 10.20624/sehs.64.4_587

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    • 山林および宗族と郷約-華中山間部の事例から-

      上田信

      人と人の地域史   1997

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      Publisher:山川出版社  

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    • <Review>Frederick W. Mote and Denis Twitchet eds., The Cambridge History of China vol. 7; The Ming Dynasty, part 1, Cambridge, 1988

        49 ( 4 ) 738 - 744   31 3 1991

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    • Life Cycle in Eastern Zhejiang Rrovince during the Ming-Qing Period

      UEDA Makoto

      SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY54 ( 2 ) 222 - 249,305   1988

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY SOCIETY  

      This article which is the first part of the demographic and eco-historical study on southeast China during the Ming-Qing period analyses three genealogies of the higher-order lineages inhabiting Shanyin (山陰), Zhuji (諸曁) and Jiangshan (江山) counties in order to estimate the degree to which the seasonal cycle influenced the mortality. Depending on these genealogies which give us the information on the date when the member of the lineages died, we can calculate the monthly fluctuations in death for every term of fifty years from 1451 to 1850 (tables 1, 2, 3). The range of indicators is very wide in the first three terms (1451-1600), but on the other hand we can find little fluctuations after 1750. This change in the pattern of mortality indicates that a demographic revolution occurred in seventeenth century. Each graph (figures 2, 3, 4) which illustrates the monthly fluctuations in death for each lineage before 1650 has two peaks and two troughs; the graph for the Shanyin Zhu (朱) lineage has troughs in the 5th-6th and the 11th-1st months of lunar calendar, that of the Zhuji Zhong (鐘) has troughs in the 6th and the 12th-1st months, and that of the Jiangshan Mao (毛) has troughs in the 5th and the 9th months. The pattern of the graph reflects the agricultural cycle of the area where each lineage lived. Shanyin where the Zhu lineage was located was in the corner of the Ningpo-Shaoxing Plain where peasants had two harvests, early and late rice crops, in the 5th-6th and 11th months of the lunar calendar. Zhuji county consisted of hills and alluvial flat which were suited to the rotation of rice and winter wheat reaped in the 6th month. Jiangshan county was a mountainous district where late rice and winter wheat were planted. The death rate dropped just after harvest times. There is little point in focusing research efforts on why the pattern of mortality changed in seventeenth century, since cause and effect were interwined in a very complex relationship within the social structure which it is almost impossible to disentangle, What we sould examine is relationship between the demographic revolution and various phenomena, for example, the structural change of lineage and administration, the introduction of New World crops, the improvement of the monetary economy and the damage to the ecological environment.

      DOI: 10.20624/sehs.54.2_222

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    • 石田浩著『中国農村社会経済構造の研究』, 晃洋書房, 一九八六・五刊, A5, 三二〇頁

      上田 信

      史学雑誌96 ( 2 ) 248 - 249   1987

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:公益財団法人 史学会  

      DOI: 10.24471/shigaku.96.2_248

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    • 日本時間午後七時、今、中国の村で : 中国映画祭に寄せて

      上田 信

      中国研究月報 ( 452 ) 38 - 39   25 10 1985

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    • 中村哲夫著『近代中国社会史研究序説』

      上田 信

      史学雑誌94 ( 6 ) 1085 - 1092   1985

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      DOI: 10.24471/shigaku.94.6_1085

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    • 「有没有目録?」

      上田 信

      アジア經濟旬報 ( 1270 ) 15 - 16   1 9 1983

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    • Eastern Asia : China : Ming and Ching (Historical Study in Japan, 1982)

      UEDA M.

      SHIGAKU ZASSHI92 ( 5 ) 761 - 767   1983

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:The Historical Society of Japan  

      DOI: 10.24471/shigaku.92.5_761

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    • History of Rural Society : A Study of Zhongyi-xiang, Fenghua County, Zhejiang

      UEDA MAKOTO

      SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY49 ( 2 ) 143 - 163   1983

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY SOCIETY  

      The gazetteer for Zhongyi xiang (忠義郷志) in Fenghua county contains a survey conducted in 1898 which records the names, numbers of households and members of lineages that immigrated to villages in this district, and the places that they emigrated from. By examining this data we can gain more information on immigration and its process, and the condition of regional development in Zhongyi xiang. Immigration differed according to historical periods. Lineaged that immigrated to Zhongyi xiang between the Tang periods came from relatively distant places such as Fujian, North China etc. By contrast during the Song dynasty the proportion of lineages that emigrated from other areas in the Zhedong (浙東) region increased, and during the Ming most of the immigrants were branch lineages from lineage groups within Fenghua county. During the first half of the Qing dynasty there was a sudden increase in immigrants from the commercial city of Ningbo and market towns in its environs. This change occurred because Zhongyi xiang had been drawn into a market sphere centered on Ningbo and the increase in merchant activities. During the later half of the Qing many shed people (棚民) moved into the mountainous parts of Zhongyi xiang. The history of the opening up of this area can be divided in the following way. During the Tang period land development began at the bottom of the mountains by using small rivers which flow down the slopes for irrigation, and in the Song period local landlords increased the amount of agricultural land by building embankments on the coast. In the Ming on big development projects were undertaken, but small scale waterways were built within the bounds of the land opened up during the Song. In the first half of the Qing land development was mainly conducted by the gentry who turned more of the coastal areas into agricultural land. The composition of lineages and social relations in villages during the late Qing was closely related to the process of immigration and land development described above. Villages established in the Tang period strongly exhibited the characteristics of a lineage village, and in villages set up on the coast during the Song there were unions between several lineage groups which had strong tie to the local area. It is assumed that this is due to the fact that villages in the Song were established by large scale irrigation works and it was necessary for residents in this area to co-operate with one another and jointly provide the funds for maitaining the irrigation facilities.

      DOI: 10.20624/sehs.49.2_143

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    • Urban "Bully Groups 無頼" in Chiang-nan 江南 during the Late Ming and Early Ch'ing Period

      Ueda Makoto

      SHIGAKU ZASSHI90 ( 11 ) 1619 - 1653,1746-   1981

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      Language:Japanese   Publisher:The Historical Society of Japan  

      This article deals with the nature and social relationship of "Bully Groups" (ta-hang 打行 and chiao-fu 脚夫) in prefecture, county, market cities and towns. Ta-hang as a group were controlled by a leader who employed their forces in private disputes, guarding plaintiffs or defendants in a court case, and robbed peasants of their crops and handicraft products which the latter carried in to sell at market towns (chen 鎮). In such work they were employed by a wide range of people, but their strongest permanent ties were to the urban elites or "men of influence at the prefectural county level" (i.e. gentry 郷紳). Since such influential people were closely connected with prefectural and county administration, their tie with urban "Bully Groups", was that of protector-client, master-sarvant relationship. But these "Bully Groups" had their own means of finding work and did not completely rely upon urban elites. By the mid-Ch'ing period these ta-hang that appeared in the late Ming period had cesased to function as bullies employed by other people and had turned into organised gangsters. Chiao-fu were carriers employed in shipping and discharging at marriage and funeral ceremonies. In the early Ch'ing period such carrier groups were able to demand exorbitant prices for their services through the use of violence. On account of such abuses "men of influence at the market town level" who dominated urban society by providing money for bridges, buildings etc., took the lead in exercising control over these unruly chiao-fu. For example men of influence in Chiang-wan chen 江湾鎮 attributed the abuses of chiao-fu to their semi-unemployed state, and raised funds from the propertied class in the market town to provide them with allowances. The growth of urban "Bully Groups" was based on the following two preconditions ; first, class- differentiation of the peasntry, and second, their having a means of living in a city. The second condition was fulfilled by the growth of commerce and increase in number of landowners who lived in prefectural or county capitals.

      DOI: 10.24471/shigaku.90.11_1619

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    Books and Other Publications

    • 東アジアと東南アジアの近世 : 一五~一八世紀

      中島, 楽章, 弘末, 雅士, 吉沢, 誠一郎, 岡本, 隆司, 岩井, 茂樹, 大木, 康, 杉山, 清彦, 柳澤, 明, 岡田, 雅志, 六反田, 豊, 松井, 洋子, 太田, 淳, 宮田, 絵津子, 新居, 洋子, 岸本, 美緒, 斎藤, 照子, 渡辺, 美季, 上田, 信

      岩波書店  3 2022  ( ISBN:9784000114226

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    • 日本にとって中国とは何か

      尾形, 勇, 鶴間, 和幸, 上田, 信, 葛, 剣雄, 王, 勇, 砺波, 護

      講談社  6 2021  ( ISBN:9784065233771

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      Total pages:455p, 図版 [2] p   Language:Japanese

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    • アジアの海を渡る人々 : 一六・一七世紀の渡海者

      上田, 信, 中島, 楽章

      春風社  3 2021  ( ISBN:9784861107290

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      Total pages:484p   Language:Japanese

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    • 海と帝国 : 明清時代

      上田, 信

      講談社  3 2021  ( ISBN:9784065227770

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    • 俠の歴史 : 士は己を知る者のために死す、「俠」に生きた勇者たち

      上田, 信

      清水書院  11 2020  ( ISBN:9784389501235

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      Total pages:425p   Language:Japanese

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    • 東洋編

      上田, 信

      清水書院  11 2020  ( ISBN:9784389501235

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    • 人口の中国史 : 先史時代から一九世紀まで

      上田, 信

      岩波書店  8 2020  ( ISBN:9784004318439

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      Total pages:vi, 251, 4p   Language:Japanese

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    • 死体は誰のものか : 比較文化史の視点から

      上田, 信

      筑摩書房  5 2019  ( ISBN:9784480072245

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      Total pages:233p   Language:Japanese

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    • Regional states and the identities of overseas people

      上田, 信

      Centre for Asian Area Studies, Rikkyo University  2019 

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      Total pages:ii, 130 p.   Language:English

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    • 歴史を歴史家から取り戻せ! : 史的な思考法

      上田, 信

      清水書院  8 2018  ( ISBN:9784389500849

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      Total pages:84p   Language:Japanese

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    • 東アジア編 ; 南・東南アジア編

      上田, 信

      清水書院  8 2018  ( ISBN:9784389500658

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      Total pages:469p   Language:Japanese

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    • 东欧亚海域史列传

      上田, 信, 寇, 淑婷

      廈门大学出版社  5 2018  ( ISBN:9787561568590

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      Total pages:3, 3, 3, 189p   Language:Chinese

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    • 日本人眼中的中國 : 過去與現在

      尾形, 勇, 陳, 柏傑, 鶴間, 和幸, 上田, 信, 葛, 剣雄, 王, 勇, 砺波, 護

      臺灣商務印書館  3 2017  ( ISBN:9789570530735

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      Total pages:429p   Language:Chinese

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    • 高等学校世界史A : 世界の歩みを探究する-新しい時代のために

      上田, 信, 大久保, 桂子, 設楽, 國広, 原田, 智仁, 山口, 昭彦

      清水書院  2 2017  ( ISBN:9784389600334

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      Total pages:224p   Language:Japanese

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    • 貨幣の条件 : タカラガイの文明史

      上田, 信

      筑摩書房  2 2016  ( ISBN:9784480016348

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      Total pages:372p   Language:Japanese

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    • 高等学校世界史A : 世界の歩みを探究する-新しい時代のために

      上田, 信

      清水書院  2016  ( ISBN:9784389600334

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      Total pages:224p   Language:Japanese

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    • 森と緑の中国史 : エコロジカル・ヒストリーの試み

      上田, 信

      岩波書店  8 2014  ( ISBN:9784007301230

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      Total pages:viii, 259p   Language:Japanese

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    • 海与帝国 : 明清时代

      上田, 信, 高 莹莹

      广西师范大学出版社  2014 

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      Total pages:viii, 509p, 図版[8]p   Language:Chinese

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    • シナ海域蜃気楼王国の興亡

      上田, 信

      講談社  9 2013  ( ISBN:9784062185431

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      Total pages:350p   Language:Japanese

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    • 高等学校世界史A : 世界の歩みを探究する--新しい時代のために

      上田, 信, 大久保, 桂子, 設楽, 國広, 原田, 智仁, 山口, 昭彦

      清水書院  2 2013  ( ISBN:9784389600211

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      Total pages:224p   Language:Japanese

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    • ペストと村 : 七三一部隊の細菌戦と被害者のトラウマ

      上田, 信

      風響社  9 2009  ( ISBN:9784894891357

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      Total pages:242p   Language:Japanese

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    • 大河失調 : 直面する環境リスク

      上田, 信

      岩波書店  8 2009  ( ISBN:9784000282598

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      Total pages:xxiii, 178p   Language:Japanese

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    • 風水という名の環境学 : 気の流れる大地

      上田, 信, 「中国文化百華」編集室

      農山漁村文化協会  5 2007  ( ISBN:9784540030970

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      Total pages:206p   Language:Japanese

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    • 東ユーラシアの生態環境史

      上田, 信

      山川出版社  4 2006  ( ISBN:9784634348301

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      Total pages:90p   Language:Japanese

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    • 日本にとって中国とは何か

      尾形, 勇, 鶴間, 和幸, 上田, 信, 葛, 剣雄, 王, 勇, 砺波, 護

      講談社  11 2005  ( ISBN:9784062740623

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      Total pages:406p, 図版 [5] p   Language:Japanese

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    • 海と帝国 : 明清時代

      上田, 信

      講談社  8 2005  ( ISBN:9784062740593

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      Total pages:526p, 図版 [7] p   Language:Japanese

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    • 東アジア家系記録(宗譜・族譜・家譜)の総合的比較研究

      上田, 信

      [立教大学]  3 2004 

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      Total pages:132p   Language:Japanese

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    • 中国の歴史

      砺波, 護, 尾形, 勇, 鶴間, 和幸, 上田, 信

      講談社  2004 

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      Total pages:12冊  

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    • トラが語る中国史 : エコロジカル・ヒストリーの可能性

      上田, 信

      山川出版社  7 2002  ( ISBN:4634490501

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      Total pages:198p   Language:Japanese

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    • トラが語る中国史 ― エコロジカル・ヒストリーの可能性 ―

      上田 信( Role: Sole author)

      山川出版社  7 2002 

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    • 疾病・開発・帝国医療 : アジアにおける病気と医療の歴史学

      見市, 雅俊, 斎藤, 修, 脇村, 孝平, 飯島, 渉, 阿部, 安成, 鬼頭, 宏, 川越, 修, 劉, 士永, 加藤, 茂生, 上田, 信

      東京大学出版会  8 2001  ( ISBN:413021067X

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      Total pages:vii, 313p   Language:Japanese

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    • 森と緑の中国史 : エコロジカル・ヒストリーの試み

      上田, 信

      岩波書店  4 1999  ( ISBN:4000252852

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      Total pages:viii, 259p, 図版 [2] p   Language:Japanese

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    • 森と緑の中国史 ― エコロジカル・ヒストリーの試み ―

      上田 信( Role: Sole author)

      岩波書店  4 1999 

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    • 地球の環境と開発

      川田, 順造, 原, 洋之介, 丸山, 真人, 長山, 勝英, 細野, 豊樹, 米本, 昌平, 斎藤, 修, 古川, 久雄, 高谷, 好一, 佐藤, 仁, 上田, 信, 大塚, 柳太郎, 青木, 克己, 木村, 秀雄

      岩波書店  3 1998  ( ISBN:4000108689

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      Total pages:viii, 300p   Language:Japanese

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    • 黄砂の村をゆく : 中国黄土高原の緑化に挑むNGO

      上田, 信

      緑の地球ネットワーク  2 1998 

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      Total pages:56p   Language:Japanese

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    • 人と人の地域史

      上田 信( Role: Joint editor)

      山川出版社  12 1997 

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    • 人口・疫病・災害

      速水, 融, 町田, 洋, 内嶋, 善兵衛, 寒川, 旭, 森脇, 広, 大井, 邦明, 早田, 勉, 安田, 喜憲, 安元, 稔, 石, 弘之, 杉山, 伸也, 伊藤, 繁, 家田, 貴子, 田島, 和雄, 新村, 拓, 上田, 信, 高橋, 眞一, 鬼頭, 宏

      朝倉書店  9 1995  ( ISBN:4254105576

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      Total pages:vi, 288p   Language:Japanese

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    • 詳解世界史B : 指導と研究

      池田, 温, 市川, 健二郎, 上田, 信

      清水書院  4 1995 

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      Total pages:618p   Language:Japanese

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    • 詳解世界史B

      池田, 温, 市川, 健二郎, 上田, 信

      清水書院  2 1995 

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      Total pages:384p, 図版   Language:Japanese

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    • 伝統中国 : 「盆地」「宗族」にみる明清時代

      上田, 信

      講談社  1 1995  ( ISBN:4062580357

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      Total pages:249p   Language:Japanese

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    • 伝統中国 ― <盆地><宗族>にみる明清時代

      上田 信( Role: Sole author)

      講談社  1 1995 

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    • 中国の社会

      上田 信( Role: Joint translator)

      平凡社  4 1994 

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    • 詳解世界史B

      池田, 温, 市川, 健二郎, 上田, 信

      清水書院  1994 

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      Total pages:384p, 図版   Language:Japanese

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    • 社会的結合

      二宮, 宏之, 柴田, 三千雄, 若尾, 祐司, 上田, 信, 三浦, 徹, 三谷, 孝, 谷川, 稔, 川本, 正知, 喜安, 朗, 松村, 高夫, 萩原, 直, 成瀬, 治

      岩波書店  12 1989  ( ISBN:4000040448

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      Total pages:xiii, 307p   Language:Japanese

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    • 歴史と近代化

      小島, 晋治, 野村, 浩一, 並木, 頼寿, 丸山, 松幸, 上田, 信, 河田, 悌一, 徳田, 教之, 安藤, 正士, 加々美, 光行

      岩波書店  12 1989  ( ISBN:4000104241

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      Total pages:xiv, 307, 5p   Language:Japanese

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    • 問俗録 : 福建・台湾の民俗と社会

      陳, 盛韶, 小島, 晋治, 上田, 信, 栗原, 純

      平凡社  12 1988  ( ISBN:4582804950

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      Total pages:xii, 254p   Language:Japanese

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    • 問俗録 ― 福建・台湾の民俗と社会 ―

      上田 信( Role: Joint translator)

      平凡社  12 1988 

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    • 東洋文化研究所所蔵中国土地文書目録・解説

      濱下, 武志, 久保, 亨, 上田, 信, 岸本, 美緒, 臼井, 佐知子, 寺田, 浩明, 林, 正子, 高見澤, 磨, 石橋, 崇雄, 楊, 国楨, 東京大学東洋学文献センター

      東京大学東洋文化研究所附属東洋学文献センター刊行委員会  1983 

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      Total pages:2冊  

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    • 仁井田陞博士輯北京工商ギルド資料集

      佐伯, 有一, 田仲, 一成, 仁井田, 陞, 濱下, 武志, 中山, 美緒, 上田, 信, 東京大学東洋学文献センター

      東京大学東洋文化研究所附属東洋学文献センター  3 1975 

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    • 中国社会史研究 Other

      4 1983
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      3 1985

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      Work type:Other  

      中華人民共和国 南京大学 高級進修生

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    Research Projects

    • 現代中国における歴史的連続と不連続(西村 成雄)

      科学研究費助成事業 

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      4 1996 - Present

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • 中国地域経済の重層構造とその長期変動に関する研究(佐藤 宏)

      科学研究費助成事業 

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      4 1995 - Present

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • Historical studies on the identity of people crossing seas and the Region States

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 

      Ueda Makoto

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      4 2017 - 3 2021

      Grant number:17H00931

      Grant amount:\37050000 ( Direct Cost: \28500000 、 Indirect Cost:\8550000 )

      In this research project, we have studied various people who came and went between the territorial states in the maritime sphere of Asia (Indian Ocean, China sea, Western Pacific Ocean)from the 14th century to the 19th century. Specifically, we have clarified the actual situation of the Portuguese Conversos (people who converted to Catholicism from Judaism) who were active over the Asian oceans and seas, the Armenians who settled down in Japan and Southeast Asia, the Scottish who left their homeland for India and China and the Japanese pirates (wokou/wakou) who smuggled among China, South Asia and Japan. In addition, we investigated the iconography of the 26 saints of Nagasaki on the mural paintings of the Cathedral of Cuernavaca in Mexico.

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    • The development of relationships between port cities and their inland regions from historical perspectives

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 

      HIROSUE Masashi, YANAGISAWA Akira, SAITO Kumiko, NOGAMI Tatenori, AKUNE Susumu, TAKEUCHI Husaji, SAWADA Hideo

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      4 2014 - 3 2018

      Grant number:26244035

      Grant amount:\30940000 ( Direct Cost: \23800000 、 Indirect Cost:\7140000 )

      The main purpose of the project is to investigate the historical development of relationships between port cities and their inland regions in order to clarify the formation of the world-wide and local orders. Recent maritime studies, which have clarified the development of maritime networks from the early modern era, are inclined to suggest the intensification of influence of the port cities upon their hinterlands. Meanwhile, our project by examining various cases in Asia, Europe, North and South America, Europe and Japan has shown that the relationships between the two did not necessarily transform themselves into one-sided. While some cases showing the formation of more homogeneous areas by the development of traffic, in other cases appear growing disconnections between the two during the modern era. These cases suggest us the renewed importance of the role of the go-between who mediates the port city and its inland society creating the "outer" and "inner" areas.

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    • 交通路より見た西南中国・東南アジア大陸部地域の再検討

      日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B) 

      ダニエルス クリスチャン, 武内 房司, 飯島 明子, 新谷 忠彦, 上田 信

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      4 2014 - 3 2015

      Grant number:26283004

      Grant amount:\4940000 ( Direct Cost: \3800000 、 Indirect Cost:\1140000 )

      本研究は、英国、米国、フランス、及びヴェトナムの四か国のアーカイブズなどに所蔵される未公刊文書と在地文書(現地語文書)の中から資料を収集して詳細な分析を加え、西南中国と東南アジア大陸部地域が交易で連結されていた歴史的構造を明らかにすることを目的としている。また、この四か国のアーカイブズに蓄積された19世紀後半・20世紀初頭の経済地理調査報告、宣教師の文書、及び在地文書を閲覧し、交通路に関するデータベースを作成することも重要な目標の一つである。
      これは重要な意味を有する研究である。第一は、これまで、内陸の陸の孤島と見なされてきた西南中国地域が閉ざされた地域として理解されてきたが、収集したデータの分析をつうじてこれまでは中国史と東南アジア史の周辺にすぎなかった当該域地域が交易で外部と連結していた点を実証できる点である。第二は、交通路の確立・変更にともなって、人の移動、言語・方言、技術や宗教信仰など種々の要素をつうじて、西南中国・東南アジア大陸部との連続性も具体的に明示できると期待される点である。さらに、近年、西南中国と東南アジア大陸部の間に人的・文化的交流が緊密化している状況下で、その祖型ともいえる近代以前の地域間交通網の実態に着目し、西南中国・ミャンマー・タイ・ラオス・ヴェトナム周辺地域の経済交流を横断的に比較・考察する本研究には今日的な意義も認められよう。
      初年度に当たる本年度においては、データベースを構築するために基礎資料を収集する作業を重視した。年度の途中で、研究代表者が海外の大学に移籍することとなったが、離日する12月末日までに、米国フィラデルフィア長老教会歴史協会とヴェトナムのアーカイブズなどで資料を収集し、また交易路関係の文献と地図等の資料を収集することができた。また、交通路と言語・方言についてミャンマーとタイ王国において現地調査に基づいてデータを収集した。

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    • A Study of "KATO(alterntive head)" in the Asian Intangible Culture : In Comparison with the Masks

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 

      HOSOI Naoko, AWAYA Toshie, ITAYA Toru, TAKEMOTO Mikio, NAKANO Teruo, UEDA Makoto, INABA Akiko, YAMAMOTO Hiroko, MIYAMOTO Mari

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      2007 - 2010

      Grant number:19401015

      Grant amount:\14300000 ( Direct Cost: \11000000 、 Indirect Cost:\3300000 )

      KATO (alternative head), such as a head worn by the actors performing in Japanese Gigaku, envelops the head, where a mask covers their face. KATO has not been marked off from mask and has been a blind spot in the study of masks. We studied the existing types of artistic performance using KATO in Asian countries, collected and analyzed the data. As a result, it has become clear that the essential property of KATO lies in the fact that it "replaces the head" and it is different from that of mask that offers a disguise by wearing it. Furthermore, as an existence wearing KATO moves in space transcending the difference of race and religion, we have a new theme of study, "a primitive human outlook on the world."

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    • Whaling as a Clue to Resolving the Globalization vs. Anti-Globalization Issue

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 

      ARANO Yasunori, UEDA Makoto, OIKAWA Yoshinobu, KURAMOCHI Shigehiro, KOMINE Kazuaki, SENGOKU Hideyo

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      2004 - 2007

      Grant number:16201052

      Grant amount:\49530000 ( Direct Cost: \38100000 、 Indirect Cost:\11430000 )

      The project involved a survey of historical sites and source materials in Japan and abroad related to whaling and joint research conducted between the members of the project team and local informants. The results may be summarized as follows.
      1. Attainment of a broader understanding of whaling as an interrelationship between humans and whales and the viewpoint that the history of whaling is an indispensable link in the study of human history.
      2. A reconsideration of the existing opinions about whaling.
      For example concerning the argument that traditional Japanese whaling practices developed indigenously within Japan, a reinvestigation of the related sources indicates that 1) large amounts of whale oil were exported from Japan to the East India Trading Companies of both the Netherlands and Great Britain during the 17^<th> century, and 2) Japan introduced various aspects of Dutch whaling technology into its own industry.
      In addition, the research to date on whaling has been limited exclusively to Japan, Europe and the United States as a specialized field of study.
      What this indicates is that whaling in countries other than Japan, like Korea and Vietnam, requires much better coverage that it has been given in the past.
      3. It is now clear that whaling is not only a topic of economics and commerce, but also has deep social and cultural roots influencing daily life and consciousness, as shown by whale-related wall paintings, mythology, literature and illustrated scrolls.
      4. Through the compilation of source materials related to whaling, a research infrastructure has been prepared which includes not only the conventional Japanese local sources, but also other materials which heretofore had been easily overlooked. For example, a comprehensive catalog and reproductions have been made available of sources held by the Iki Folklore Museum, Geihinkan Museum (Eguchi Collection), Tsushima History and Folklore Archives (Korikata Mainikki) and the Taiji Whale Museum.

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    • 中国雲南をコアとする東ユーラシア交易圏の動態的研究

      民間財団等  (財)JFE21世紀財団 

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      4 2005 - 3 2006

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • Socio-Economic History of Health in Modern Asia : Diseases, Development and Public Health

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 

      WAKIMURA Kohei, KOBAYASHI Shigeru, UEDA Makoto, IIJIMA Wataru, SUZUKI Akihito, MIMA Tatsuya

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      2004 - 2006

      Grant number:16330065

      Grant amount:\12600000 ( Direct Cost: \12600000 )

      The project has sought to develop the research on the socio-economic history of 'health' in modern Asian context, particularly examining the relationship between health phenomena and economic development. We have tried to trace the changes in living standards in several Asian countries during the modern period from the perspective of health development.
      We have focused upon the epidemic diseases that occurred during the 19^<th> century and the first half of the 20^<th> century in Asia. Some Asian countries faced very serious epidemic diseases such as cholera. plague, malaria and influenza. These epidemic diseases resulted in huge death toll. This project has aimed to examine the historical course of these diseases and their causal relationships in terms of globalization and environmental changes, and at the same time, to clarify the measures that were taken against these epidemics. We have particularly highlighted the above-mentioned situations of frequent epidemic diseases in both South Asia and East Asia during the globalization from the late 19^th century to the early 20^th century. We examined the relationship between trade growth and epidemics during that period. Also we considered the relationship between epidemics and environmental changes created by economic development. Finally we made some provisional remarks on comparative aspects between South Asia and East Asia.
      We have also focused upon the most serious epidemics of the present, including avian influenza and HIV/AIDS, and compare them with historical examples. We invite both historians and scholars tackling important issues of the day to promote an exchange of our views in order to improve our understandings of these problems.

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    • The Study on new Politico-Economic System and its Changing Model in China: Interdisciplinary and International Approaches

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 

      KOJIMA Tomoyuki, NAKAGANE Katsuji, SATO Hiroshi, TAKAHARA Akio, SONODA Shigeto, WATANABE Mariko

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      2002 - 2004

      Grant number:14390049

      Grant amount:\13300000 ( Direct Cost: \13300000 )

      This joint research project has attempted to inquire about the new system of politics and economy emerged in the process of after the reform and open-door policies starting from the 1980s in China and its model for transformation. In order to study this subject, this project with foreign as well as Japanese scholars has adopted a new approach, in other words, the interdisciplinary and international one. Our members whose disciplines are different from each other s including political science, economics, sociology, or history, have conducted joint research on the newly emerging politico-economic system in the post-reform period. They have frequently confirmed through repeated meetings among Japanese members and virtual communication by e-mails their common goal for finding China's new system of politics and economy. Through doing so, we have reached several common points of conclusion on the newly emerging systems of politics and economy after the reform and open-door policies and its model. In the first place, the new economic system has almost been established, and it seems similar to the market-oriented system outside China though socialist and traditional elements have still remained in part. In the second, no clear system of politico-economic system has been built even after 20 years of China's attempt for reforms. In the third, the party itself and public intellectuals in China have shared the crisis consciousness. This project has made a contribution to China Studies though several points seems to remain for more careful research. Included is an issue of governance. This joint project attempts to publish a book in English complied by papers written by Japanese members and foreign partners, and it will be published at the end of this year. The title of this book is "Restructuring China - Party, State, and Society"

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    • グローバリゼーションの歴史的前提に関する学術的研究(荒野泰典)

      日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 

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      4 2000 - 3 2003

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • FORESTS AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE AND UPPER WATERSHED ARE OF MEKONG RIVER

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 

      OSAKI MASAHARU, HIGA MASAO, UEDA MAKOTO

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      2001 - 2003

      Grant number:13571021

      Grant amount:\10800000 ( Direct Cost: \10800000 )

      The aim of this research project on the cultures of the ethnic minorities living in the mountainous areas along the Mekong (Lancang River in Chinese), is to prove that in order to preserve forests, it is inappropriate to exclude the people who have lived in, used and worshipped the forests for a long time, but that on the contrary it is such people themselves that should be the main players. For this purpose we have tried to find and explain their cultures, especially on forest usage, and evaluate their ideas and the functions of their cultures for preserving natural environment in their ways they have used forests since time immemorial.
      In this project we have researched in the mountainous ethnic minorities' area in the Mekong watershed, the grand international river that has lately attracted considerable attention as a potential subject of huge development plans. The nine villages we researched are the ones of 6 ethnic minorities in Menghai county of Xishuangbanna Dai nationality Autonomous Region, Lincang county and Shuangjian county of Lincang Region, and Tengchong county of Baoshan Region (3 villages of Dai nationality,2 villages of Wa Nationality,1 village of each nationality of Bulang, Hani, Lisu and Lahu) in Yunnan Province. We focused on the four points : influence of the forest policies in village societies ; ethno-histories and transitions of natural environment ; forest usage and its results (customary laws and subsistence economy) ; cosmology.
      As the results of our field researches, we can say that in 1960s and 70s most of the ethnic minorities who depended on forests for their lives had been gradually losing their self-directed lifestyles that used to have much relation with forests. This situation around ethnic minorities has been raised by huge destruction of forests that was caused rather by strong forces outside than by their own, and changeable policies. Before that greater historical turning point, almost all the ethnic minorities retained balanced traditional practices between using and preserving forests based on their religions and worldviews.
      Considering the facts mentioned above, we suggest that from now on we should recognize and promote the self-direction of mountainous peoples in usage and management of forests not only for their own well beings but for preservation of natural environment contributing to the benefits of China and the neighboring countries along an international river, the Mekong. To recognize their self-directions does not mean to allow the peoples to use forests selfishly and to ignore such a certain danger as they would destroy forests. It entirely means to admire the minds of such ethnic minorities built-in their cultures that they have to manage carefully their own forests that they depend on to survive.

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    • General Study on Family-line Records of East Asia

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 

      UEDA Makoto, MORIMOTO Kazuo, NAKANISHI Yuji, SHIMA Mutsuhiko, SEGAWA Masahisa, TOMIYAMA Kazuyuki

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      2001 - 2003

      Grant number:13571027

      Grant amount:\12000000 ( Direct Cost: \12000000 )

      In the research result report, articles of each research partner and research cooperatbr was written based on the result of the comparative study of family-line record of East Asia over three years. In the article of Shima, family-line record of the Korean possessed by Utah genealogy library was considered. Furthermore, "Genealogy of Ando Gon"(『安東権氏世譜 成化譜』) edited in the 15^<th> century which is the oldest Korean genealogy is analyzed. This result offers the foundation of research of Korean family-line record. Nakanishi advanced research for the family-line record in a southern Vietnamese village. It pointed out that KIN people accepted genealogy as a foreign cultural element, and analyzed how genealogy would be used as equipment of memory. Morimoto advanced analysis of family-line record of Western Asia, and profiled the features of family-line record of East Asia. Tanaka, a research cooperator, introduced the research on the gravestone of Amakusa with the photograph which tells the situation of a spot, and positioned the gravestone into family-line record. Kurahashi showed the new possibility of genealogy analysis based on genealogy of Jiangnan China, taking in the viewpoint of cultural capital. Ueda analyzed semantic attachment of houses or ancestor halls as family-line record left behind to the space of a village based on the fieldwork and the genealogy data.

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    • Agrarian Transformation and Areal Differentiation in Globalizing Southeast Asia

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 

      UMEHARA Hiromitsu, HIROSUE Masashi, MOTOKI Yasushi, SIRASAKA Shigeru, TORII Takashi, TAKAHASHI Akio

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      2000 - 2002

      Grant number:12308003

      Grant amount:\18850000 ( Direct Cost: \14500000 、 Indirect Cost:\4350000 )

      The study group consisting of 13 Japanese area specialists and four overseas collaborators has executed this project for three years (2000〜2002). Shifting the focus from one to the other along with major research items set for at the beginning, we have undertaken field studies and workshops, including International Symposium in the third year. The final report consists of four parts, namely Social Changes under Colonial Administration, Modernization Policies, Transformation of Societies in Rural and Urban Areas, and Areal Differentiation as a reflection of Social Changes.
      Since the interpretation or assessment of agrarian transformation varies extensively, there will not to be much to say as conclusion. Followings are only things we may say as common understandings. Firstly, peasant society we witnessed in 1960s was not the one that had traditionally existed without much change, but the one that had largely transformed during colonial time. Secondly, the most dynamic transformation in the post-war period had occurred after the mid-1960s due mainly to the green revolution and subsequent commercialization of agriculture. It bought about an emergence of large market for agricultural supplies and services, to which local grain traders and financiers responded promptly and grew as new rural elite. Thirdly, implementation of modernization programs has dislocated many peasants from their villages. Majority of them went to urban area in anticipation of getting employments. The rest went to mountain areas for securing land to till. Fourthly, rural economy is structurally in transition. Rural household economy had shifted or broadened its income source from farm to non-farm sector.

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    • NGO(民間公益団体)と大学とのパートナーシップの可能性

      科学研究費助成事業 

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      4 1998 - 3 2000

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • 中国江南地方における宋以降の都市と農村文化の総合的研究(尾上 兼英)

      日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 

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      4 1994 - 3 1997

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • 地域性の形成における人口・環境要因の作用(宮嶋 博史)

      科学研究費助成事業 

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      4 1985 - 3 1997

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • The Multilevel Structure of China's Regional Economy : Excavation and Analysis of Firsthand Statistical Data

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research 

      SATO Hiroshi, OSHIMA Kazutsugu, UEDA Makoto, KATO Hiroyuki, DU Jin, NAKAGANE Katsuji

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      1995 - 1997

      Grant number:07041049

      Grant amount:\6800000 ( Direct Cost: \6800000 )

      This study aims (1) to collect micro statistical data and archives at the village, township and country level (putting emphasis on the village level), and at the same time, (2) to conduct field researches, such as household census, detailed interviews with peasants and grass roots cadres, and (3) to compile a comprehensive historical micro statistical database, and using this database, analyze the long-term socioeconomic dynamics of rural China from various angles. The field of survey is H city, Zhejiang province, which is located on Northern Zhejiang plain and specializes in sericulture. 2. Through our study period, (1) we compiled various materials into a comprehensive micro statistical database, and (2) to introduce our achievements, we held several work-shops in Shanghai and in Tokyo. 3. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) Our research field is under the process of marketization, and this process consist of two dimensions, one is the resurgence of the market relations of pre-liberation era and the other is the development of economic heritages in the commune era. (2) On the other hand, sericulture is under the strict state control, and the collective ownership of land is the structurally essential determinant of village economy. (3) So, we need to analyze of the nature of dual tradition--the experience of market relations in pre-liberation era, and the institutional continuity between pre-and post-reform.In other words, we can see a unique symbiosis of state control and market mechanism in China's rural economy.

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    • 中国の方言と地域文化(平田 昌司)

      科学研究費助成事業 

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      4 1993 - 3 1996

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • 現代中国農村社会の地域史的研究

      民間財団等  トヨタ財団 

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      4 1993 - 3 1994

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • 地球環境の変動と人口の変動(速水 融)

      科学研究費助成事業 

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      4 1991 - 3 1994

      Grant type:Competitive

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    • A Comparative Culture Study of Japanese Views of Life, Death, and the Afterworld : Tradition and Change

      Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (A) 

      KIDA Kenichi, SEKI Masakatsu, UEDA Makoto, KONISHI Masatoshi, KOJIMA Takayuki

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      1992 - 1993

      Grant number:04401002

      Grant amount:\11800000 ( Direct Cost: \11800000 )

      1. Fieldwork Surveys
      Mainly the research sections on regions and types conducted both a survey of views of the other world in Osorezan in Shimokita and Okinawa, and did fieldwork on Christian ruins in Goto, Hirado, and Ikitsuki. There was also individual research conducted in Kumano, Tendo, Nara, Nagoya, etc. There were reports on and discussion of this research, and the results were written up in our research reports.
      2. Questionnaire Surveys
      Mainly the research sections on ethics and modern times conducted questionnaire survey on "Contemporary Urban Cemeteries and Funerals" and "Brain Death and Organ Transplants." The results of this research were written up in our research reports.
      3. Comparative Culture Research
      Professor Masao Higa and Masanobu Akamine of the University of Ryukyu and Professor Stephen Vlastos of the University of Iowa gave presentations, and then we discussed them.
      4. Public Symposia
      With the cooperation of Tokyo's Toshima Ward Education Committee, two symposia were held at Rikkyo University : "Various Views of the Afterworld" and "Life and Death in Modern Times." The results of these symposia were written up in our research reports.
      5. Completion of Research Reports
      We completed and brought together our research reports in a volume entitled, A comparative Culture Study of Japanese Views of Life, Death, and the Afterworld : Tradition and Change, and distributed it to various research institutions.
      We were able to achieve the results described above, but we belive that the are only a beginning. In paticular, in regard to the academic research on fieldwork, we face the serious problem of how best to make this research available to socitey. Considering this problem, we realized that we should try to continue this research and bring it to completion, and so we are once again applying for necessary research funds in order to accomplish this.

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    • 都市の内部ネットワーク

      日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 重点領域研究 

      佐藤 次高, 小杉 泰, 川北 稔, 加納 啓良, 加納 弘勝, 上田 信

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      1988 - 1990

      Grant number:01625005

      Grant amount:\5000000 ( Direct Cost: \5000000 )

      「都市の内部ネットワーク」を研究課題とするE班は、平成元年度中に研究会を4回、研究打ち合せ会を2回開催した。第1回の研究会はK班、R班との合同で行われ、「外からみた『イスラム都市』」をテーマに、中国およびヨーロッパの専門家の目からみた「イスラム都市」について討論した。第2回は、「都市を読む」の第2回目としてハキーム著の『アラブ・イスラム都市』をとりあげた。第3回はR班との合同研究会であり、「ムスリム都市とヨーロッパ都市」のテーマの下に、新しい比較の視点を求めて活発な議論が展開された。最後の第4回もJ班、R班との合同で行われ、「都市と祭」についてアラブ、東南アジア、ヨーロッパの具体的事例が報告された。
      また研究打ち合せ会では、研究分担者相互の情報交換を行うと共に、都市の内部ネットワークについての研究をどのように進めていくベきかが討論された。結論だけを要約すれば、これまでの研究に加えて、神秘主義教団と街区住民との関係、パブ・チャイハネ・茶館、人口移動の問題を扱うことが、内部ネットワークの解明には不可欠であることが確認された。またE班独自のテーマとして、これからも「都市を読む」読書会を来年度も続けることが提案された。
      都市研究をすすめるためには、関係図書を利用することが不可欠であるが、E班では研究分担者から必要文献のリストの提出を求め、英語、フランス語、ドイツ語のイスラム都市関係図書をそれぞれ数十冊ずつ計75冊を購入した。

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    • 都市の内部ネットワーク

      日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 重点領域研究 

      佐藤 次高, 小杉 泰, 川北 稔, 加納 啓良, 加納 弘勝, 上田 信

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      1988 - 1990

      Grant number:02207104

      Grant amount:\5000000 ( Direct Cost: \5000000 )

      「都市の内部ネットワーク」を研究課題とするE班は、最終年度である平成2年度中に研究会を4回、研究打ち合せ会を3回開催した。第1回の研究会はD班、F班との合同で、「華僑送金と都市のネットワーク」をテーマに報告と討論が行なわれた。第2回は、「イスラム都市を読む」の第3回目としてフセインースルタンーザーデ著『イランにおける都市と都市集住の歴史入門』をとりあげた。第3回は「暮しのなかのつきあいーパブ、コーヒー店、茶館ー」のテーマの下に、都市における集合のあり方を多角的に検討した。最後の第4回は、「都市の社会生活と砂糖」をテーマとして沖縄で開催し、「イスラム都市社会と砂糖」および「イギリス近代史上の砂糖」の報告に続いて、製糖工場の見学を行い、多くの知見を得ることができた。
      また研究打ち合せ会では、研究分担者相互の情報交換を行うと共に、都市の内部ネットワークについての研究のすすめ方を検討した。内部ネットワークの解明には、神秘主義教団と街区住民との関係を扱うことの重要性が指摘された。しかし秋の「全体集会」をにらんで、とりあえず「都市における集合」問題をとりあげ、パブ・コーヒー店、茶館のテーマから開始することを決定した。なお、「イスラム都市を読む」(読書会)は、E班独自のテーマとして有用であり、魅力的であることが改めて確認された。
      なおE班独自の活動ではないが、昨年度E班の読書会でとりあげたハキーム著『イスラーム都市ーアラブのまちづくりの原理ー』の翻訳出版が実現した。

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    • 都市の内部ネットワーク

      日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 重点領域研究 

      佐藤 次高, 小杉 泰, 川北 稔, 加納 啓良, 加納 弘勝, 上田 信

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      1988 - 1990

      Grant number:63625005

      Grant amount:\4000000 ( Direct Cost: \4000000 )

      「都市の内部ネットワーク」を研究課題とするE班は、63年度中に研究会および研究打ち合わせ会をそれぞれ3回ずつ開催した。第1回目の研究会は、「任侠、無頼の世界」をテーマとし、中国、イスラム、ヨーロッパ世界のアウトローについて比較検討した。第2回は、D、E、F、S班の合同研究会であり、ここでは都市社会の基本単位である街区(ハーラあるいはマハッラ)について集中的な討論が行なわれた。第3回は、『イスラム都市』と題するアラビア語の著書を読む読書会でありこの書の内容紹介とそれにもとづく意見の交換がなされた。
      また研究打ち合わせ会では、研究分担者相互の情報交換を行うと共に、都市の内部ネットワークについての研究をどのように進めていくべきかが討論された。結論だけを要約すれば、人口の集中、街区の構成、神秘主義教団と職人組織との関係、祭と都市生活などE班として取りあげるべき問題は数多くあるが、個々のテーマを扱いながらも常に「都市」あるいは「都市性」とは何かを問うことの重要性が確認された。これは来年度以降の研究活動に生かされるはずである。
      都市研究をすすめるためには、関連図書を利用することが不可欠である。E班では研究分担者から必要文献のリストの提出を求め、これにもとづいて若干の図書資料を購入した。内訳は、アラブ、イラン、トルコ世界の都市関連図書がそれぞれ約20点づつとなっている。なお、提出された文献リストは、現在パーソナル・コンピューターによって入力中である。

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    • Ecological History of China.

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      Grant type:Competitive

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    • NGOと大学のパートナーシップ

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      Grant type:Competitive

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    • Partnership between NGO(Non-garvenmental organization)and University

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      Grant type:Competitive

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    • Social History of China.

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      Grant type:Competitive

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    • 生態学的歴史学-中国を中心として-

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      Grant type:Competitive

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    • 中国社会史

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      Grant type:Competitive

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